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* High blood pressure
* Family history of coronary disease
* Male gender and older age
* Physical inactivity
Among them, some are controllable, but some are not. If you can mange the controllable factors, you will be able to reduce the incidence of CHF greatly.
Control blood pressure
High blood pressure is common in CKD, affecting three quarters of the patients. Achieving a target blood pressure lower than 130/30 mmHg not only can slow progression of kidney disease, but also can reduce the strain on heart. ACE inhibitors, Beta-blocker, diuretics and digoxin may be prescribed to you to lower high blood pressure.
Diabetes in patients who have moderate to severe CKD is a risk factor for cardiovascular deterioration. If you are a diabetic with CKD, management of diabetes and strict control of blood sugar can reduce your risk of CHF effectively.
Smoking is associated with cardiac disease closely. It can increase the protein in urine and elevate blood pressure as well as cause direct damage to blood vessels. Cessation reduces cardiovascular outcomes and slow CKD progression and your risk of developing CHF.
Anemia can reduce the oxygen and blood supply to heart. It also can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Treating anemia and achieving a hemoglobin level of 110 to 120 g/L can reduce the incidence of CHF in CKD.
Along with the above intervention treatments, managing your daily diet and taking part in proper exercise also play a crucial role in preventing CHF in CKD. You should take regular exercise each day and avoid foods high in fat and salt restrictively.