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Seizures are commonly seen in patients on hemodialysis. They generally occur during or shortly after the dialysis procedure. Preventive measures can help the patients avoid the condition. Seizures in hemodialysis is mainly due to the following factors:
Uremic encephalopathy is a brain disorder and it develops in patients with acute ore chronic renal failure. It has a complex pathophysiology and many toxins build up in body may be contributive.
Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome
Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome is a central nervous system disorder and it is a significant clinical problem in dialysis patients. It is due primarily to cerebral edema. Patients who start dialysis recently are at increased risk.
Dialysis dementia due to aluminum intoxication
Dialysis dementia is mainly seen among long-term dialysis patients. It is due to aluminum intoxication as from aluminum-containing compounds in the dialysis fluid. The main symptoms of aluminum intoxication include reduced thinking ability, dementia, muscle cramps and seizures, etc.
Hemodynamic instability, whether hypertension or hypotension can be contributive to seizures on hemodialysis. As hemodialysis has to remove the accumulated fluids is such a short time, it is very likely to cause hemodynamic instability, thus leading to seizures. It is important for the patients to keep their dry weight.
Apart from the above the above causes, seizure on hemodialysis may also be caused by the following factors:
* Drugs, such as erythropoietin, carbapenem and ertapenem
* Cerebrovascular disease, such as hypertensive encephalopathy, infraction, hemorrhage and subdural hematoma
* Electrolyte disorders, such as hypercalcemia, hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and hypernatremia
* Air embolism
If seisures occur, treatment should be taken immediately to keep the condition under control. Once the illness condition become stable, a through test should be performed to find out the causes of seisures for people on hemodialysis. Preventive measures can help avoid the onset of another critical issue.