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Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS)

FSGS basics

What is Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS)?

Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is scar tissue that forms in parts of the kidneys' tiny filters called glomeruli. The glomeruli function to help rid the body of unnecessary or harmful substances. Each kidney has thousands of glomeruli.



Glomerulo=of kidney filters

Sclerosis=are scarred

For people with FSGS, their renal functional cells present global sclerosis and fibrosis progressively. Eventually, kidneys will fail to work. Patients have to undergo dialysis and even kidney transplant. Therefore, early treatment to reverse this vicious development is necessary.

Causes of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS)

1. The main causes of FSGS include two aspects: the internal kidney reason like reduced immunity and the external kidney reason like antigens of the infection, cold, etc. In case of the decrease of immunity, the pathologic foreign bodies, as some type of antigens, will combined with antibody after invading into human body, and then form immune complex (mainly featured by IgG and C3 deposition).

The special epitopes in the kidneys can attract the immune complexes, so the immune complexes will flow with blood circulation and deposit in the glomerular capillary loops, which gives rise to segmental hyaline degeneration in the epithelial cells of the glomerulus. As a result, the surface of epithelial cells of the glomerulus is desquamation, and inflammatory mediator continues to invade, leading to the damages of epithelial cells barrier function. Proteins in the blood will run into urine, and then get discharged out of body. Meanwhile, after epithelial cells get damaged, they will turn into myofibroblast, resulting in glomerular sclerosis, and start the process of renal fibrosis.

2. Secondary FSGS

* Secondary to viral infections such as HIV, parvovirus, and hepatitis B.

* Massive obesity

* Sickle cell nephropathy

* Congenital cyanotic heart disease


Since idiopathic FSGS is difficult to treat, most patients with FSGS develop to total kidney failure 5~20 years. Some patients with an aggressive form of FSGS reach total kidney failure in 2 to 3 years.

The prognosis of FSGS can be influenced by clinical manifestations, pathological changes of renal tissue and curative effect of treatment.

▪ Clinical manifestations

If patients are accompanied with persistent Nephrotic Syndrome, the survival rate for about 10 years is 45%, while the non Nephrotic Syndrome patients can achieve 90%. The prognosis is bad for patients with severe hyperlipidemia and severe proteinuria.

▪ Pathological changes

If the pathological change of FSGS is accompanied with diffuse mesangial proliferation, obvious arteriolosclerosis, renal tubule interstitial infiltration of inflammatory cells and interstitial fibrosis changes, the prognosis is bad.

▪ Curative effect of treatment

Treatment involving steroids or other immunosuppressive drugs appears to help patients by reducing proteinuria and improve kidney function. But these treatments are beneficial to only a minority of patients in whom they are tried, and some patients may have even poorer kidney function as well as poor prognosis.


▪ Have a healthy diet which should be low in sodium and protein. ▪ Avoid stimulating foods and high-fat foods.

▪ Do regular physical activities.

▪ Quit smoking, and drink alcohol moderately.

▪ Reduce the stress in daily life through counseling, doing stress reduction exercises, and meditation.

▪ Take medicine to help control the blood pressure and/or cholesterol levels.

If you have been diagnosed with FSGS, we're here to help. Call us: +86-311-89261083 OR Email us: kidneyabc@hotmail.com(Monday through Sunday) to make an appointment.

FSGS symptoms

FSGS produces scars within the kidneys, causing them to lose the ability to work. The symptoms are variable from case to case. Many patients have no symptoms. In other cases, patient may experience the following conditions:

·Foamy urine (from excess protein in the urine)

· Swelling, or edema in parts of the body (around the eyes, hands and feet)

·High blood pressure

·Low blood protein

·High blood cholesterol level

·Pain of back, flank and abdomen


·Fever, and chill

·Weight gain

·Poor appetite

·Nausea and vomiting

FSGS is often first identified by detecting protein in the urine. This disease can progress without any symptoms, causing kidney failure. If you have some of the above signs and symptoms, see your doctor to discuss what might be causing them.

If you have been diagnosed with FSGS, we're here to help. Call us: +86-311-89261083 OR Email us: kidneyabc@hotmail.com(Monday through Sunday) to make an appointment.

FSGS treatment

FSGS is not an easy condition to treatment, and the goal of treatment is to control the symptoms of Nephrotic Syndrome and prevent chronic kidney failure.

1. Symptomatic treatment

Generally, treatments may include:

·Antibiotics to control infections

·Anti-inflammatory medicines to reduce the immune response

·Dietary therapy. Limit the intake of fluid, fat, protein, etc.

·Medicines to treat elevated blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels

·Vitamin D supplements


·Kidney transplant

2. Holistic treatment-Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy is the most advanced therapy for FSGS, which can help patients get rid of this disease through removing the immune complex, repairing the damaged epithelial cells and rebuilding the renal function. Moreover, immunotherapy can help patients regulate the immune system.

In immunotherapy, through a series of immune blocking methods, we can restrain the immune reaction rapidly so as to prevent further damages to renal tissues and intrinsic cells. Micro-Chinese Medicine Osmotherapy is used to degrade and then discharge the immune complex effectively. Meanwhile, the body immunity is improved so as to clear away these pathogenic substances.

As to the damaged tissues and cells, we will protect them with integrated Chinese and western medicines. The overall immune system will get gradually regulated.

Besides, with the advanced immune clearance technologies such as immunoadsorption, plasma exchange, hemoperfusion, hemofiltration, blood fat purification, etc, we can clear up the harmful substances in the blood completely so as to ensure the best treatment effects of kidney disease.

If you have been diagnosed with FSGS, we're here to help. Call us: +86-311-89261083 OR Email us: kidneyabc@hotmail.com(Monday through Sunday) to make an appointment.

FSGS diagnosis

If you are suspected to have Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), you may need to undergo one or more of the following tests.

1. Conventional diagnostic tests

Urine test. When you are suspected to have kidney problems, it is necessary for you to collect your urine for a 24-hour period for further kidney function tests.

Blood tests. For people with the disease, after doing the blood test, you can observe increased levels of the waste product creatinine in your blood.

Kidney biopsy. This is necessary to establish the diagnosis of FSGS and to distinguish it from other diseases that may also cause protein loss in the urine and abnormal kidney function.

2. Immune special examination and diagnosis

▪ Kidney Damage Tests. Aims: 1) confirm the kidney damage; 2) the damaged part, glomerulus or renal tubules; 3) make the severity of kidney damage clear and guide the clinical choice of medicine; 4) judge patient's sensitivity to medicines and guide the clinical medicine application.

Checking items include: UTP, U-malb, U-TRF, U-IGG, β 2-microglobulin, α1-microglobulin, α2-macroglobulin, κ light chain, λ light chain, U- NAG, U-GGT, and Uosm.

▪ Urinary protein electrophoresis. This test is used to analysis the composition of urine protein. Aims: 1) judge the source of proteinuria; 2) make differential diagnosis of various kidney diseases; 3) determine patient's drug susceptibility.

▪ Selective urine protein index (SPI). Aims: 1) determine the type of glomerular diseases; 2) judge the prognosis; 3) guide the medicine application in clinic.

SPI≤0.1 indicates high selective proteinuria, slightly glomerular damage, the treatment effects of hormones and immunosuppressants are good, prognosis is mostly favorable (mostly seen in MCD);

SPI>0.2 indicates non-selective proteinuria, serious glomerular damage, the treatment effects and prognosis may be unfavorable (MN, FSGS).

▪ Complement in Blood Serum Tests. The tests include C3, C4, CH50, C3B etc. They serve to help your doctors to hold a clear overview of classical pathway and specific pathway of complement, which can deal with the underlying immune disorder.

▪ Toxins in Blood Tests. Aims: 1) Make the buildup of toxins in the body clear; 2) guide the choice of immune clearance method.

Checking items include: BUN, Creatinine, UA, β 2-microglobulin, Cyc C, RBP, HCY, and PTH.

If you have been diagnosed with FSGS, we're here to help. Call us: +86-311-89261083 OR Email us: kidneyabc@hotmail.com(Monday through Sunday) to make an appointment.

FSGS knowledge

Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis, or FSGS is a disease that causes loss of protein in urine and eventual scarring of the glomerular filters of the kidney.


Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) would not definitely lead to infertility of patients. When the disease has been clinically cured and the illness condition keeps stable for over 2 years, the patient can regain health and have a healthy baby. However, people with poor kidney function are not suggested to get pregnant. Pregnancy may bring the following risks to the mother and baby.

▪ Risks to the mother

- Increased risk of developing UTIs



-Postpartum hemorrhage

-Deterioration of the disease condition

▪ Risks to the baby


-Abortion, premature delivery and stillbirth

-Low blood sugar, hypocalcemia, hard breathing and congenital abnormality in nervous system, cardiovascular system and alimentary system.

Patient should control FSGS well and have a good recovery after effective treatment, then she can discuss with the doctor about the pregnancy.

Sexual Life

The loss of proper kidney function will impact some areas of your life, possibly including the sex life. It is common for sexual desire to be affected by chronic kidney disease such as FSGS.

Whether you will retain the ability to enjoy sexual life depends on heavily on you as an individual. In some cases, men affected by the disease may have trouble with impotence (difficulty having or maintaining an erection). Another possible condition is problems with ejaculation. However, generally, one's participate in sexual activity and enjoy sexual intercourse is still very much possible.

Once find that your sex life has been affected by FSGS, speak to your physician about possible solution. Usually, the stress and anxiety associated with kidney disease and the subsequent treatment alone can adversely impact your sexual appetite as well as your ability to enjoy sex as usual.

If you have been diagnosed with FSGS, we're here to help. Call us: +86-311-89261083 OR Email us: kidneyabc@hotmail.com(Monday through Sunday) to make an appointment.

FSGS healthcare

People with FSGS may be usually wonder that how to develop a healthy lifestyle. The following give some useful suggestions. We hope that these tips can be helpful for all patients with the disease.

·Have proper activities and exercises. Usually, mild diseases like aerobic exercises (swimming, cycling, jogging, walking, dancing, etc), resistance exercises, skills-based exercises, etc. It is recommended 30 minutes as a session and do activities three days per week. Various sports can help patients to improve immune system functioning, lower blood pressure and cholesterol level, significantly improve cardiovascular disease conditions.

·Eat a proper diet that is low in salt and protein. Much salt intake can make people feel frequent thirsty and need to drink more water. This increases one's risk of fluid retention, which will aggravate the edema. Limiting protein intake can decrease the waste product urea in the blood and eases the burdens of the kidneys. Therefore, you should avoid eating too much food like milk, cheese, yogurt, fish, meat or eggs, but high-protein foods like lean meat, milk, fish, egg white etc are ok.

Restrict fatty and greasy foods. Avoid stimulating foods such as sea food, spicy food, beef, mutton, crabs, garlic, onions, parsley, dog meat and wine, coffee, seasoning and so on.

If FSGS patients has progressed to Kidney Failure, low-potassium and low-phosphorus diets are necessary. High potassium foods include banana, date, potato, spinach, mushroom, etc. Phosphorous is high in foods like animal liver, yolk, tea, peanut, walnut, sesame, etc. Therefore, these foods should be avoided.

·Stop drinking alcohol and smoking, both of which are harmful to the recovery of kidney function.

·Balance between work and rest. Avoid over-strain and strenuous exercise, both of which are factors that may result in aggravation of the disease. It is necessary to have enough rest and proper physical activities in the daily life.

·Keep a positive attitude toward life. A good mood is important to your recovery. Don't be too worried and afraid. You should have confidence to overcome the disease.

If you have been diagnosed with FSGS, we're here to help. Call us: +86-311-89261083 OR Email us: kidneyabc@hotmail.com(Monday through Sunday) to make an appointment.

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