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Horseshoe kidney is the most common type of renal fusion anomaly. The kidneys are fused together at the lower end or base. It can cause urinary obstruction at the joint of renal pelvis and ureter, thus resulting in hydronephrosis. The hydronephrosis in horseshoe kidney may cause the following clinical symptoms.
One of the most common symptoms associated with hydronephrosis in horseshoe kidney is abdominal pain, accounting for 52.6% cases.
Hematuria can be seen in this condition. Infection, kidney stone or trauma can aggravate the hematuria.
Oliguria or anuria
Oliguria or anuria can be seen in hydronephrosis of horseshoe kidney. It is due to urinary obstruction and urine can not be excreted normally.
High blood pressure
In about 1/3 severe cases of hydronephrosis, the patients may develop high blood pressure. The expanded renal pelvis and calices compress interlobular artery, thus leading to renal ischemia. That is how high blood pressure occurs.
If secondary infection occurs, the patients will experience fever.
Spontaneous renal rupture
In some cases, infection may cause renal pelvis. It can cause hematoma around kidneys and urinary extravasation.
Digestive tract symptom
Digestive tract symptom can be commonly seen in hydronephrosis of horseshoe kidney. The digestive tract symptoms mainly include abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea and abdominal distention.
If urinary obstruction occurs in both sides of kidneys, it may lead to renal insufficiency and eventually renal failure.
The above are the major symptoms of hydronephrosis in horseshoe kidney. Once the patients experience the above symptoms, an effective treatment should be required at once to avoid further kidney damage.