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Adverse Effect of Immunosuppressive Medicines for Kidney Transplant Patients


2013-11-28 15:12

Adverse Effect of Immunosuppressive Medicines for Kidney Transplant PatientsFor kidney transplant patients, a lifelong intake of immunosuppressive medicines is an necessity to prevent the rejection of transplanted kidney. But the adverse effects of immunosuppressive medicines appear in the majority of patients, leading to increased morbidity, mortality and economic costs. Here are some introductions to adverse effect of immunosuppressive medicines.

Tacrolimus

It is used to inhibit cytokine production, such as IL2 and T-cells. Taking it for a long time may cause renal dysfunction, increased blood pressure, headache, tremors, decreased magnesium, elevated cholesterol, glucose intolerance.

Cyslosporine

It has the same effects as Tacrolimus. Besides the side effects we have referred, it may cause hair growth, gallstone formation, and enlarged gums.

Belatacept

It binds to antigen-presenting cells to prevent binding and activation of T-cells. But it may cause urinary tract infections.

Mycophenolate Mofetil

It inhibits purine synthesis to block immune cell division. But it may low white blood cell count and cause nausea and diarrhea.

Azathioprine

It inhibits purine synthesis to block immune cell division. But it may also low white blood cell count.

Prednisone and Methylprednisolone

They do not only has the anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties, but also inhibits the production of prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and cytokines. They may cause osteoporosis, elevated blood sugars, fluid retention, upset stomach, increased blood pressure, cushingoid effect, increased appetite, glaucoma and cataracts.

Basiliximab

It inhibits binding of the cytokine IL-2 to block T-cell, but it may bring about flu-like symptoms, such as fever, chills and headaches, diarrhea, shortness of breath and rash.

Anti-lymphocyte globulin

It binds and destroys T-cells, And its side effects are the same with basiliximab.

There are some common post-transplant medications to treat the side effects of immunosuppressants, such as valacylovir, valganciclovir, sulfamethoxazole, proton pump inhibitors, pantoprazole, omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, H2 blocker, famotidine, ranitidine etc.

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