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Stage 4 Lupus Nephritis: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

2013-10-30 09:44

Lupus nephritis is an inflammation of the kidney caused by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). According to WHO, Lupus Nephritis can be classified into 6 stages. Today, we will mainly take about the causes, symptoms and treatment of Stage 4 Lupus Nephritis.

What is Stage 4 Lupus Nephritis?

Stage IV lupus nephritis (diffuse proliferative) is both the most severe, and the most common subtype. More than 50% of glomeruli are involved. Lesions can be segmental or global, and active or chronic, with endo-capillary or extracapillary proliferative lesions. Under electron microscopy, subendothelial deposits are noted, and some mesangial changes may be present. Immunofluorescence reveals the so-called "Full House" stain, staining positively for IgG, IgA, IgM, C3, and C1q. Clinically, haematuria and proteinuria are present, frequently with nephrotic syndrome, hypertension, hypocomplementemia, elevated anti-dsDNA titres and elevated serum creatinine.

What causes Stage 4 Lupus Nephritis?

Many factors can lead to Lupus Nephritis:

Immune genetic defects: such as lack of C2C1qC1r、C1sC4、C8 and so on.

External environment factors: including chronic infection, drugs (penicillin, sulfonamides, hydralazine and so on), physical factors (sun allergy, X-ray irradiation, cold and so on), diet (celery, fig, tobacco and so on), psychological factors andendocrine factors (estrogen)

What symptoms of Stage 4 Lupus Nephritis?

Lupus nephritis symptoms are similar to those of other kidney diseases. They include:

- Dark urine

- Blood in urine

- Foamy, frothy urine

- Having to urinate often at night

- Puffy feet, ankles, and legs that gets progressively worse as the day goes along

- Gaining weight

- High blood pressure

What are treatments of Stage 4 Lupus Nephritis?

- Minimizing intake of protein and salt

- Taking blood pressure medication

- Using steroids to reduce swelling and inflammation

- Taking immune-suppression medicines like prednisone to reduce immune system damage to the kidneys, such as glucocorticoid, cytotoxic drug, cyclosporine A and so on.

- Plasma exchange

- Immunotherapy. It can help improve immune system and clear the immunocomplex, which has been achieved obvious clinical effects. Moreover, it can rebuild the damaged kidney cells. Only in this way, can you live healthy.

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