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Nephrotic Syndrome Diagnosis: Exams and Tests

Provided by Expert Zhang Youkang on 2012-10-14 10:02

There are tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that are responsible for filtering wastes and extra fluid from the blood. When these filters get impaired, people may get Nephrotic Syndrome. Without treatment, this problem could cause kidney failure. So it's important to make an early diagnosis and get treatment right away. What exams and tests are scheduled to diagnose Nephrotic Syndrome?

Conventional tests

I. A 24-hour urine collection. This measures the total amount of protein in the urine collected over 24 hours. People will be diagnosed with Nephrotic Syndrome if they have over 3g of protein in their urine.

II. Blood test for albumin. Lower serum albumin levels can lead to fluid to accumulate in the ankles, lungs, or abdomen.

III. Creatinine and creatinine clearance. With these tests, we can know how well the kidneys are functioning.

IV. Blood profile tests to measure the amount of protein, cholesterol, and blood glucose.

VI. Renal ultrasound. This exam can rule out other causes of the symptoms.

Unless Nephrotic Syndrome clearly occurs due to Diabetes, a kidney biopsy is usually done to find the cause. Children do not usually have a biopsy.

Immune special tests for Nephrotic Syndrome

▪ Kidney Damage Tests. Aims: 1) confirm the kidney damage; 2) the damaged part, glomerulus or renal tubules; 3) make the severity of kidney damage clear and guide the clinical choice of medicine; 4) judge patient's sensitivity to medicines and guide the clinical medicine application.

Checking items include: UTP, U-malb, U-TRF, U-IGG, β 2-microglobulin, α1-microglobulin, α2-macroglobulin, κ light chain, λ light chain, U- NAG, U-GGT, and Uosm.

▪ Complement in Blood Serum Tests. The tests include C3, C4, CH50, C3B etc. They serve to help your doctors to hold a clear overview of classical pathway and specific pathway of complement, which can deal with the underlying immune disorder.

▪ Toxins in Blood Tests. Aims: 1) Make the buildup of toxins in the body clear; 2) guide the choice of immune clearance method.

Checking items include: BUN, Creatinine, UA, β 2-microglobulin, Cyc C, RBP, HCY, and PTH.

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