Polycystic kidney disease(PKD) is a genetic kidney disorder featured with multiple cysts growing in kidneys. In clinic, PKD can be divided into five stages.
PKD is a genetic disorder. Generally speaking, the patients are born with cysts on kidneys. However, when the cysts are small, they can not be detected easily. If there is a family history, early screening is very important for the family members.
Between age 30~40, the cysts usually grow very rapidly. This stage is called growth stage medically. As there is no effective treatments for PKD in western medicine, passive treatment is usually taken to control the symptoms. In this stage, if the patients can receive effective treatment, they can prevent it from developing into next stage.
After age of 40, the cysts will enlarge further. When the cysts become larger than 4 cm, they are very likely to rupture. This stage is called swollen stage. As the cysts enlarge persistently, a myriad of symptoms will appear such as back pain, proteinuria, hematuria, high blood pressure etc.Controlling the symptoms alone is not enough to stop PKD progression. In this stage, other treatment should be used to shrink the large cysts at the same time.
If the cysts keep growing further, under the influence of certain factors, they may rupture at any time. Once rupturing occurs, the patients should take hospitalization treatment immediately. Meanwhile, it is important to control infections and prevent septemia and acute renal failure.
Uremic stage refers to end stage of renal disease. In this stage, the cysts have grown extremely large. As the kidneys have been impaired significantly, the treatment should aim at preserving renal function and restoring impaired kidney structure.
As PKD develops progressively, if the patients can receive early and effective treatment, they will be able to stop it from developing into next stage.