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Polycystic Kidney Disease

PKD basics

What is Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)?

Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) is an inherited disease that causes many cysts to form in the kidneys. The kidneys are two organs, each about the size of a fist, located toward the back of a person's abdomen (stomach). The kidneys function to filter wastes and extra fluid from the blood to form urine as well as regulate amounts of certain vital substances in the body. When a person has PKD, clusters of fluid-filled cysts develop in the kidneys. In normal condition, a kidney weighs less than 1/3 of a pound (about 3/4 of a kilogram), while a kidney filled with numerous cysts can weigh as much as 20~30 pound (9.1~13.6 kilograms).

For many people, PKD is mild and causes only minor problems. In some cases, the growth of cysts causes the kidneys to become enlarged and can result in kidney failure. About one half of people with the most common type of PKD progress to kidney failure, also called end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

Types of Polycystic Kidney Disease

There are three types of PKD: two primary inherited forms and one non-inherited form.

▪ Autosomal Dominant PKD, also known as Adult PKD (inherited).

This type makes up around 90% of all cases of PKD. It is also called Adult PKD, as signs and symptoms often develop between the ages of 30 and 40. Children can also develop the disorder. Only one parent needs to have ADPKD in order for it to pass along to the children. If one parent has this form, each child has a 50% chance of getting affected by the illness.

▪ Autosomal Recessive PKD, also known as Infantile PKD (inherited).

This form is far less common than is ADPKD, and it accounts for about 10% of cases of polycystic kidney. The symptoms often appear shortly after birth. In some cases, symptoms don't occur until later in childhood or during adolescence. The earlier the onset, the more severe the outcome. Both parents must have faulty genes for this type, each child has a 25% chance of getting the disease. If only one patent carried the gene, children will not be affected.

▪ Acquired cystic kidney disease, or ACKD (non-inherited).

It is also called ACKD, which appears in 90% of patients undergoing dialysis for 5 years or more. This is not caused by gene mutations. Study shows that cysts may form in the kidneys due to an unidentified waste product not eliminated through dialysis. Thus, this cause is linked to kidney failure. In general, about 20 percent of people starting dialysis treatments already have this condition; about 60 to 80 percent of people on dialysis for 4 years develop the disorder; about 90 percent of people on dialysis for 8 years develop ACKD.

If you have been diagnosed with Polycystic Kidney Disease, we're here to help. Call us: +86-311-89261580 OR +86-311-89261083 or email us: kidneyabc@hotmail.com(Monday through Sunday) to make an appointment.

Polycystic Kidney Disease often does not have symptoms in the early stages. If you have symptoms, they may include:

PKD symptoms

▪ High blood pressure

▪ Back or side pain

▪ Headache

▪ Bruise easily

▪ Pale color to skin

▪ Increased in the size of the abdomen

▪ Hematuria (blood in the urine)

▪ Frequent urination

▪ Kidney stones

▪ Urinary tract or kidney infection

▪ Kidney Failure

▪ Aneurysms (bulging of the blood vessel walls) in the brain

▪ Diverticulosis (pouches in the intestines)

▪ Abnormal heart valves

It is common for people to have PKD for years without developing signs or symptoms and without knowing they have the disease. If you have some of the above signs and symptoms, see your doctor to discuss what might be causing them.

If you have been diagnosed with Polycystic Kidney Disease, we're here to help. Call us: +86-311-89261580 OR +86-311-89261083 or email us: kidneyabc@hotmail.com(Monday through Sunday) to make an appointment.

Specific treatment options vary based on the particular symptoms and their severity, some of the treatment methods used for PKD include:

PKD Treatment

·Western Medicine

Symptomatic Treatment

Dialysis

Kidney Transplant

·Chinese Medicine

Traditional Chinese Medicine

Micro-Chinese Medicine Osmotherapy

·Immunotherapy

Western medicine treatment for PKD

1. Symptomatic Treatment

Pain. Mild to moderate pain can be treated by over-the-counter (OTC) pain medications prescribed by the doctor. In rare cases, your doctor may recommend surgery to shrink the cysts and relive pain.

High blood pressure. Treatments involve anti-hypertensive medications and changes in lifestyle (exercise, diet, stress reduction).

Urinary tract infections . The infection needs to be treated as soon as possible with antibiotics.

Liver cysts. Non-surgical management may include avoiding hormone replacement therapy (HRT), or hormone therapy (HT). Occasionally, surgery may be needed to drain cysts or remove diseased parts of the liver. In rare cases, a liver transplant is needed.

Kidney Failure. If PKD results in kidney failure (end-stage renal failure), patients will eventually need either dialysis or a kidney transplant.

2. Dialysis is a process that remove excess fluid and waste products from the blood using a membrane-instead of a kidney-as a filter. There are two main types of kidney dialysis, hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

3. Kidney Transplant. Transplantation of healthy kidneys into end-stage renal failure patients has become a common procedure. However, even people have successfully received a transplant, they need to take anti-rejection drugs to suppress the immune system and prevent the body from rejecting the graft kidney.

Chinese medicine treatment for PKD

1. Traditional Chinese medicine. A variety of treatment modalities are used to promote health and treat the disease. Commonly used therapies include as below:

▪ Acupuncture and acupressure

▪ Herbal medicine

▪ Chinese massage, called tui na

▪ Exercise like tai chi and qi gong

▪ Moxibustion

▪ Nutrition

2. Micro-Chinese Medicine Osmotherapy.

It is a kind of unique herbal medicine with high efficacy. Certain herbal medicines are chosen according to patient's illness condition, and then these medicine will be superfinely shattered, so they become so tiny that the medicine can permeate into renal lesion by skin permeation. Putting the osmosis device on bed, patients lie down on it, then the ingredients will be absorbed from the back of patients by skin permeation.

These natural herbal medicines, after entering into patient's body, can exert their special functions as below:

▪ Chinese medicine can take effect to expand blood vessels, speed up blood circulation on cysts walls, and improve the permeability of the cysts. In this condition, cystic liquid will be reabsorbed into blood vessels and then get discharged out of the body through urine, thus making the cysts shrink and decrease. Besides, this therapy can restrain the proliferation of the epithelial cells so as to prevent cysts from growing again.

▪ The blood circulation of the whole body will be improved, and the perfusion flow of the blood to the kidneys will be increased. In this case, more nutrients in blood will be transferred into renal lesions, so kidneys will get more nutrients to help self-heal and symptoms will be relieved. It will also help to lower the pressure on the kidney tissues and gradually recover the function of the inherent cells.

▪ Through nourishing blood and Qi, Chinese medicines can also function to strengthen the overall immunity.

Immunotherapy for PKD

Immunotherapy is a new therapy developed by the renowned kidney experts in China based on many years' treatment on PKD. It can treat the disease effectively through regulating the overall immune system, so the underlying cause can be eliminated. Curative effects may include:

▪ Series of symptoms will get relieved gradually, and patient's life quality gets significantly improved.

▪ Enlargement of the renal cysts can be stopped. Immunotherapy can improve the lining cells' monitor, so these cells will no longer proliferate, thus preventing the further growth of cysts.

▪ All of the cysts will be restrained and shrunk over time. Multiple cysts' size will become smaller and smaller, and they will never recur after disappearance.

▪ Renal function gets effectively improved. This is based on the functions of Immunotherapy including eliminating inflammation, removing harmful substances, enhancing blood circulation, and creating a favorable condition for kidney repair.

As a new way to treat kidney injury and PKD, Immunotherapy provides patient with new hope to live a normal life.

If you have been diagnosed with Polycystic Kidney Disease, we're here to help. Call us: +86-311-89261580 OR +86-311-89261083 or email us: kidneyabc@hotmail.com(Monday through Sunday) to make an appointment.

PKD test

Polycystic Kidney Disease is often diagnosed when an individual begins to have the symptoms of PKD, but not all people who have this disease will have all of these symptoms. Several diagnostic methods as below are available to detect the disease.

1. Conventional diagnostic tests

▪ Family history. This is important in making a diagnosis. The less common ARPKD can only be diagnosed through testing.

▪ Blood and urine tests. Blood tests can show a buildup of toxins like urea, while urine tests can show the presence of protein or blood in the urine.

▪ Ultrasound of the kidneys. It is the most reliable way to diagnose PKD. A transducer, wand-like device, is placed on the body. It can emit inaudible sound waves that are reflected back to the transducer - like sonar. A computer translates the reflected sound waves into images of the kidneys. The images allow the doctors to see the size and number of cysts.

▪ Computerized tomography (CT) scan. It is a diagnostic procedure that uses special X-ray equipment to create cross-sectional pictures of the body. The images are produces using X-ray technology and powerful computers. As people lie still on a table, the table slowly passes through the center of a large X-ray machine. This test is painless.

▪ Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. During the procedure, people lie inside a large cylinder, magnetic fields and radio waves generates cross-sectional views of the kidneys.

2. Immune special examination and diagnosis

▪ Molecular diagnosis. PKD is a kind of inherited disease, and molecular diagnosis can help us confirm the diagnosis of the disease. Genetic test can help to test the genetic mutation of PKD1 and PKD2 which contributes to a correct diagnosis and avoid misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis.

▪ Toxin in blood Tests of Kidney Disease. Aims: 1) Make the buildup of toxins in the body clear; 2) guide the choice of immune clearance method.

Checking items include: BUN, Creatinine, UA, β 2-microglobulin, Cyc C, RBP, HCY, and PTH.

▪ Hematuria Position. Aims: 1) judge the source of RBCs in the urine, glomerular or urinary tract; 2) make the degree of hematuria clear; 3) guide the clinical treatment and medicine application.

Glomerular hematuria:

flow urinary sediment non-uniformity red blood cells; urinary red blood cells form deformation (red blood cells>75%); ALB/UTP 0.73±0.11.

Non-Glomerular hematuria:

flow urinary sediment uniformity red blood cells; urinary red blood cells form deformation (red blood cells<50%); ALB/UTP 0.41±0.14.

Mixed hematuria:

both non-uniformity red blood cells and uniformity red blood cells are detected in the urine.

▪ Series of Kidney Damage Tests. Aims: 1) confirm the kidney damage; 2) the damaged part, glomerulus or renal tubules; 3) make the severity of kidney damage clear and guide the clinical choice of medicine; 4) judge patient's sensitivity to medicines and guide the clinical medicine application.

Checking items include: UTP, U-malb, U-TRF, U-IGG, β 2-microglobulin, α1-microglobulin, α2-macroglobulin, κ light chain, λ light chain, U- NAG, U-GGT, and Uosm.

If you have been diagnosed with Polycystic Kidney Disease, we're here to help. Call us: +86-311-89261580 OR +86-311-89261083 or email us: kidneyabc@hotmail.com(Monday through Sunday) to make an appointment.

PKD knowledge

Polycystic Kidney Disease is inherited kidney disease than progresses slowly. If it develops into worse condition, it may affect your life in many aspects, such as pregnancy, lifespan etc.

PKD and Pregnancy

PKD patients are suggested to have a baby on the condition of stable kidney functions. Due to the disease, pregnancy will overload the kidneys more, which may be a trigger of progressive kidney failure. This is dangerous for both mother-to-be and fetus.

Before you plan to have a baby, you are suggested to manage well preparation for it, including improving kidney function, controlling blood pressure and seeing your doctor at a regular basis.

Will I Pass PKD Genes on My Children?

PKD comes into two forms, autosomal dominant PKD (ADPKD) and autosomal recessive PKD (ARPKD). In ADPKD, an affected parent has 50% chance of passing the disease to his or her child. And if both parents have the disease, the affected possibility of their children will go up to 75%.

Additionally, there is a 10% rate of spontaneous mutation for ADPKD.

ARPKD, the rarer form of polycystic kidney disease, is inherited from both parents and affects between one in 10,000 to one in 40,000 babies.

Polycystic Kidney Disease and Life Expectancy

There is not a standard answer for Polycystic Kidney Disease Life Expectancy. Some patients will live their whole lives without developing into End Stage Kidney Disease. However, some others develop into kidney failure within several years, which affects their lives and lifespan a lot.

Kidney failure is a very important. PKD can cause Kidney Failure in more than 50% of the patients who have it. And most of these patients develop into kidney failure before they are at the age of 50s to 60s.

Not all patients' lives are affected by PKD greatly. Talking with your doctor about the lifestyle and treatment on the basis of your individual condition will help slow down the course of PKD.

If you have been diagnosed with Polycystic Kidney Disease, we're here to help. Call us: +86-311-89261580 OR +86-311-89261083 or email us: kidneyabc@hotmail.com(Monday through Sunday) to make an appointment.

PKD health care

Polycystic Kidney Disease is a life-threatening disease affecting over 12 million people throughout the world. While there is no cure for PKD, a healthy lifestyle can help patients control the symptoms and delay the progression of this disease.

Keep blood pressure within normal levels will help slow the progression of PKD and reduce damage to the kidneys. Following a diet low in fat and sodium may help lower the blood pressure. In addition, blood pressure medications may also needed. People with PKD need to have an annual physical exam, including a measurement of blood pressure and urinalysis.

Follow a healthy diet. A diet low in protein is suggested. The recommended daily sodium intake should be less than 3,000 milligrams in order to keep a healthy level of blood pressure. Required amount of nutrients varies with the progression of PKD. A renal dietitian can help to plan a diet that meets personalized nutritions.

Proper exercise is an important part of dealing with the disease, but contact sports are discouraged. Any activity that can potentially cause renal trauma or injury should be avoided. While it is important for everyone to drink plenty of water during exercise, it is particularly important for PKD patients. The needed amount of water depends on the stage of the disease and whether people are receiving dialysis. The doctor can help to suggest a recommended daily water intake.

Being underweight or overweight can stress the body and accelerate the progression of the disease, so it is of great importance to maintain a healthy weight. Choose low-impact sports such as swimming, tennis, and golf. Avoid basketball, football or boxing, etc.

Approximately 60% of those with PKD will develop into kidney failure by their 60s. Dialysis and kidney transplants are treatment options for kidney failure. Through a cure for the disease is not yet available, leading a healthy lifestyle can help slow disease progression.

If you have been diagnosed with Polycystic Kidney Disease, we're here to help. Call us: +86-311-89261580 OR +86-311-89261083 or email us: kidneyabc@hotmail.com(Monday through Sunday) to make an appointment.

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